Record Details

Ball, G. E.;Shpeley, D.
Synopsis of the Neotropical genus Ozaena Olivier: Classification and reconstructed evolutionary history (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Ozaenini)
Canadian Entomologist
Journal Article
Parque Nacional del Manu Animals Invertebrates Arthropods Insects Coleoptera Carabidae Ozaenini Ozaena beetles Pakitza taxonomy systematics new species distributions morphology evolution Madre de Dios Bibliography
Descriptions and illustrations of structural features of adults, a key, and chorological data provide the basis for characterizing the genus Ozaena Olivier and classifying the 10 included species, two of which are new: O. maxi (type locality: Iracubo, CAYENNE), and O. manu (type locality: Manu National Park, Madre de Dios Province, PERU). With a geographical range that extends from ca. 30 degree S to 30 degree N in the New World, all species of Ozaena occur in cis-Andean South America, only two ranging farther north: O. dentipes Olivier, to Panama; and O. lemoulti Banninger to southern Arizona, USA. A reconstructed phylogeny postulates the following: the genus Platycerozaena Banninger as the sister-group of Ozaena, together these genera comprising the Ozaena genus-group; within Ozaena, the O. dentipes group as sister-taxon of the O. lemoulti + convexa groups; within the O. dentipes group, O. maxi as sister-taxon of O. linearis Banninger + dentipes; within the O. lemoulti group, the sequence O. ecuadorica Bann. (O. elavata Bann. (O. lemoulti + martinezi Ogueta)); and within the O. convexa group, O. grossa Bann. as sister-taxon of O. convexa Bann. + manu. Character evolution involves losses, gains, and shifts, in about equal numbers. Convergence is relatively rare, involving only three of 35 characters. The predominant mode of character evolution is simple, with few examples of sequential changes sustained through several speciation events. Basic modifications in evolution of the groundplan of the Ozaena genus-group include reduction or loss (for example, tactile sense organs, antennal cleaner of the fore tibia, and adhesive vestiture of the male fore tarsi), and enhancement or gain (for example, scale-like sensilla basiconica on pronotum and elytra, concentration of sensilla basiconica in groups on the antennomeres, particularly antennomere 11). Within Ozaena, many modifications to the antennae and mouthparts indicate the importance of these organs to evolution of the group. Based on phylogenetic relationships and the distribution pattern of the extant species, a reconstructed geographical history of Ozaena postulates the following: first, a vicariance event in South America separating the ancestral stock of Ozaena into a northern vicar that gave rise to the O. dentipes group, and a southern vicar that gave rise to the O. lemoulti and convexa groups; followed by cycles of range expansion and contraction that allowed for differentiation of successive stocks of species. The temporal range for these speciation events is estimated to extend over a period of about 12 million years, or from the latter part of the Miocene epoch to the Recent. The most recent speciation events are estimated to be of Pliocene age. Based on lack of differentiation of South American and Middle American representatives of O. dentipes and O. lemoulti respectively, and extent of range in Middle America, these two species are postulated to be relatively recent invaders of the latter area with O. dentipes being the more recent to arrive.
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